1 For hackers and free software enthusiasts
The Guix System is a distribution of the GNU operating system based on the Guix package manager.
There are better chances you’ve heard of Nix. From the GNU Guix manual:
Guix is based on the Nix package manager, which was designed and implemented by Eelco Dolstra, with contributions from other people (see the nix/AUTHORS file in Guix.) Nix pioneered functional package management, and promoted unprecedented features, such as transactional package upgrades and rollbacks, per-user profiles, and referentially transparent build processes. Without this work, Guix would not exist.
The terminology for Guix may be a bit confusing. When someone says they are using Guix, the may be referring to either using the Guix package manager on a foreign distro, or actually using the GNU distribution, which is usually differentiated by calling it the Guix System. So:
- plain “Guix” = maybe the package manager, maybe the distro
- “Guix System” = the GNU distribution
Note how I don’t specifically say GNU/Linux distribution. That is because, despite basically everyone using Guix as with the Linux kernel, there is the possibility to use another kernel, such as Hurd.
Technicalities aside, Guix is a GNU distribution that features only free software in its official repository. This is a thing I deeply respect, and it turns out I can do everything I need on a computer only with free software. I am running Guix for about half a year now and I love it.
A good thing that comes from this is being able to have multiple system “generations” saved. That means that if, right now, I do a system upgrade and things get messed up, I can revert easily to the previous state of the system by booting up the previous generation (you can select those in the bootloader menu).
Another nice thing about Guix is how it manages packaging. All
packages are describes using Scheme code and they are stored in a git
repo. Take a look at the
hello program’s recipe:
(define-public hello (package (name "hello") (version "2.10") (source (origin (method url-fetch) (uri (string-append "mirror://gnu/hello/hello-" version ".tar.gz")) (sha256 (base32 "0ssi1wpaf7plaswqqjwigppsg5fyh99vdlb9kzl7c9lng89ndq1i")))) (build-system gnu-build-system) (synopsis "Hello, GNU world: An example GNU package") (description "GNU Hello prints the message \"Hello, world!\" and then exits. It serves as an example of standard GNU coding practices. As such, it supports command-line arguments, multiple languages, and so on.") (home-page "https://www.gnu.org/software/hello/") (license gpl3+)))
Because all packages are pretty descriptive code in a public git repo, Guix accepts patches from anybody for updating, fixing or adding new definitions. Because the whole process is extremely simple it allowed me to get 21 commits into the master branch at the time of writing with no prior contributions done to a GNU/Linux distribution.
Thanks to the way Guix is built, one more great thing that it features
is represented by its environments. An environment is a
temporary… uh… environment? with a selected set of
packages. You’re basically dropping into a shell that has a different
set of packages than your normal one, set specifically tailored for
some purpose, such as building a program. If I play with Guix’s own
source code, I don’t have to install all of its dependencies
permanently on my system. I can have a temporary shell with them for
as long as I need to work on that code with
guix environment guix.
I mentioned earlier that packages are Scheme code. Well, in Guix, pretty much everything is Scheme code. Even the base system configuration is Scheme code. Take a look at this: Using the Configuration System.
Channels are great too. Basically the Arch AUR but on steroids and everyone can make one. Cooler than PPAs.
Not all the packages one would need, or not the latest versions. There are not as many people working on it as I’d like. This is not something that happens because Guix is bad in some way, it’s just that it’s so new and different not many people use it, fewer even contribute.
The package manager is noticeably slower than others. If you use an
Arch machine after playing with Guix you’d think you were in slow
motion before using
pacman. Why does “building database for manual
pages” take so damn long?
Not necessarily a dislike for me but worth mentioning: be prepared to do some compilation! Since Guix basically has recipes to build everything from source, if something isn’t already built on their substitutes server, your machine is going to do it. Most of the time you’ll be fine, especially if you keep pull all the new definitions today and upgrade tomorrow, for example.
2 For moderate geeks
If you prefer something more established than Guix, something where you can still tinker a lot but is more mainstream, I can recommend Arch (I never tried Gentoo).
When shit breaks when updating, the solution is always on Arch’s website.
Makes it easy to install proprietary software.
Fast package manager.
Bigger community and more packages than other distributions, such as Guix.
Great documentation. I really love the Arch wiki, and everyone that ever touched a GNU/Linux system probably does too.
You can run games on it! (Proprietary software bad tho.) Arch (and Arch derivatives) are great for playing video games because they have the latest drivers and software available so it’s likely you will have the newest advancements in game tech always available.
Shit breaks sometimes when updating.
Makes it easy to install proprietary software.
The AUR could be better (see Guix channels).
The packaging procedure is a bit underwhelming after dealing with Guix. On Arch, there’s a select bunch of people that actually manage the packages in the official repos. I prefer Guix’s approach — everyone can send in patches for any package, and if they are good, they get in. No “official maintainer” for stuff. I got some new packages into the official Guix repo without having any special label on me.
3 For normal people
Manjaro is basically Arch for people than want the benefits of Arch but don’t want to be bothered with setting everything up themselves (and there’s nothing wrong with that).
Whatever I like about Arch.
Easy installation process and it’s also nice that they have some driver management. I always got confused on plain Arch about what graphics drivers I have installed and running.
ARM support. I see that they don’t have a RPI3 image anymore (they have images for a lot of other hardware), but I remember having it installed on my board about half a year ago and it was the nicest experience I ever had with my Pi.
Whatever I dislike about Arch.
Sometimes feels unnecessarily bloated, but I guess that’s the cost of
having a fully working, preconfigured machine.
Packages seem to come way faster on Arch – I don’t think there’s a day when
pacman -Syu doesn’t do anything. But on Manjaro, the updates don’t seem to be
4 My current setup
For the moment, I dual boot GNU Guix System and Manjaro. I use Manjaro to occasionally play Age of Empires 2 and use whatever proprietary shit my school forces me to use from time to time. Guix System is my primary operating system and I love it.